Last time we looked in on Apple v. Psystar, Psystar had lost big time and was filing an appeal and telling the lower court they would be very, very legal while awaiting word from the appeals court.
While you and I wait, we can read the newly released transcript [PDF] from the hearing held on November 12, 2009. This was the final hearing prior to the ruling from Judge Alsup in the California case that shut down Psystar. Both parties had filed motions for summary judgment, Apple for copyright infringement and violation of the DMCA, among other things. Psystar had asserted essential step and first sale defenses, along with copyright misuse. All the filings can be found on our permanent Psystar Timeline page, if you want to really follow along with all the fine points.
But for now, let's review recent history, and let's try to discern the bigger picture. First, we had SCO alleging that the GPL was unConstitutional in its litigation against IBM in connection with an assertion of ownership of code that both a judge and a jury have now ruled it never owned. Next, we had Psystar claiming that Apple had no right to tie hardware and software, claiming both antitrust violation and, when that failed, copyright misuse. Then we had MySQL's prior owner asking the EU Commission to change the license on that code, the GPL, to a BSD-like license to make it more business-friendly. And now we have TurboHercules asking the EU Commission to find IBM has no right to license its code to whomever it wishes.
Anybody starting to see a pattern to all this? The biggest pattern similarity to me is that all of them are about wanting to use someone else's code without having to abide by the license,
the assertion that for one reason or another, the author of software code can't choose the terms under which he chooses to license it and that others who didn't write it get to use it the way they wish to, instead of having to write their own.
Another pattern I notice is that in each case, the party asserting the invalidity of the license didn't or doesn't have much to lose. None of the cases are a battle of the titans between two large and successful companies. It's closer to the patent troll M.O., meaning there is a potential upside for the little guy but not much downside even if the anti-license party loses.
They all cost a lot of money for the company being forced into the courts, and they were all made into big media events by the eventually losing party, with large companies trashed and smeared in the press, even though the likely winner was predictable from day one even to us non-lawyers. That's another way of saying they are fairly weird cases, all of them.
There are a couple more transcripts in the Psystar case still not yet released, both of which will be available in May, in case you are tracking such things, the hearing transcripts for July 9 and August 20, 2009.
We had an eyewitness report from the September 4, 2009 hearing, but this will be our first real look at these two hearings from July and August. It was not long after the July hearing that Psystar's original lawyers on the case, Carr & Ferrell, dropped out and were replaced by Camara & Sibley, so I'm looking forward to that one.
Sometimes I see comments that assert that Psystar only lost because it made too many copies. That was very much part of the problem. But I think you will see from the hearing that this wasn't the only problem. For one thing, Apple argued at the hearing that first-sale allows for no copies at all. And the DMCA isn't even about copying, only access.
Here, then, is the transcript of the November 12, 2009 hearing as text, with line numbers removed so those relying on screen readers don't go bonkers trying to read it:
United States District Court
Northern District of California
Before The Honorable William Alsup
No. C08-3251 WHA
San Francisco, California
Thursday, November 12, 2009
Reporter's Transcript Of Proceedings
Townsend and Townsend and Crew
By: Jim G. Gilliland, Esquire
Camara & Sibley, LLP
By: K.A.D. Camara, Esquire
Christian Curtis, Esquire
Sahar McVickar, RPR, CSR #
Official Reporter, U.S. District Court
For the Northern District of California
(Computerized Transcription By Eclipse)
Thursday, November 12, 2009
P R O C E E D I N G S
THE COURT: Now let's go to Apple.
THE CLERK: Civil action 08-3251, Apple, Inc.,
versus Psystar Corporation.
THE CLERK: Counsel, can you please state your
appearances? And we'll get set up.
MR. CAMARA: Kiwi Camara for the defendant, Psystar
I'm joined by Christian Curtis.
THE COURT: Great.
MR. GILLILAND: Good afternoon, Your Honor.
Jim Gilliland and Mehrnaz Boroumand Smith for
Townsend and Townsend and Crew for Apple.
THE COURT: Great. Welcome to both of you.
All right, here's a motion for summary judgment.
We'll let the plaintiff go first. Each side is going to get
roughly the same amount of time the last group had, so please
make your best points. I'm very familiar with the record, so
you use the time in the way that you want. Okay.
MR. GILLILAND: Thank you, Your Honor. These are
the parties' cross-motions for summary judgment. So they have,
in essence, agreed that there are no disputed issues of
material fact at least with a couple of the key --
THE COURT: Well, so if you lose on their motion,
you will agree there is not a disputed issue of fact?
MR. GILLILAND: With respect to the copyright
infringement and Digital Millennium Copyright Act claims, Your
Honor, I believe the issues are joined and that the parties
have said there are no disputed issues of fact. So, indeed,
THE COURT: Usually when they say that, they just
mean it if they win. So that's why --
THE COURT: But you are willing to say if you lose
you will stand by that.
MR. GILLILAND: I prefer to win, Your Honor, but --
THE COURT: I won't hold you to that unless you both
agree to it.
MR. GILLILAND: Indeed, from Apple's perspective, if
we were to have the good fortune of winning on our DMCA and
copyright infringement claims that would, in large measure, go
towards ultimately resolving this case. Because we do think
that those are the heart of the matter, and we are looking
forward to the Court's consideration of them.
And, in fact, by the fact that we have
cross-motions, the record, all six of those briefs put together
show that it is undisputed that Apple has the copyrights,
registered copyrights in Mac Os 10, Mac Os 10 Leopard, and
Don't Steal MAC OS; that Psystar has made multiple copies; that
it has adapted those copies to run on non-Apple hardware; that
in order to do that, it has circumvented our technological
protection measures. And then it has resold those computers to
It's not disputed that --
THE COURT: Let me ask you this: Let's say you did
not have any encryption codes, and so forth, that you just had
straightforward software, and it was sold under the same
agreement, same license, and so forth --
MR. GILLILAND: Yes.
THE COURT: Wouldn't your argument still be the
same? Or is it necessary for you to win that there is a
MR. GILLILAND: I'll answer that in two ways, Your
Honor. First, it is not necessary to -- with respect to the
copyright infringement claims. But secondly, with respect to
the remedy, it is relevant to know whether there has been a
violation of the DMCA.
Let me go through something that is in the briefs
and that you have already seen, but that may help crystallize
what the issues are.
THE COURT: Um-hmm.
MR. GILLILAND: At the end of day, it does not
matter, actually, when the software is licensed or whether it's
sold to Psystar because whatever they are doing both violates
Apple's license and violates the Copyright Act and the Digital
Millennium Copyright Act. Whether you use the Essential Step
defense or the First-Sale defense, two-thirds of what Psystar
is doing is unlawful. So let me walk the Court through, if you
Psystar obtains one retail DVD in Mac Os 10; it's
the upgrade version, we say it's licensed. And they then --
and this is undisputed because they said that Dr. Kelly's
report that Apple submitted, they accept it. And they say that
this is clear, they agree, they confirm Dr. Kelly's report that
this is how Psystar makes and distributes its computer.
Psystar copies Mac OS 10 onto an Apple Macintosh
computer. This is lawful; nobody disputes this. It's
permitted by Apple's license. If they are an owner, it's
covered by the Essential Step defense. But then, they make
multiple additional copies after that, and all of those are
unlawful, under the -- under the Copyright Act and under the
So the next thing that Psystar does is it copies Mac
OS 10 again from its MAC Mini, from the Apple Computer onto
what Psystar calls the "imaging station." The imaging station
is a Psystar computer. So now we have two copies of Mac OS 10
made from the original, and neither the Essential Step defense
nor the First-Sale defense allows more than one copy.
Beyond that, Psystar adds its own software -- I'll
come back to that in a moment -- but it adds it software so
that Mac OS 10 can run on a non-Apple computer.
And then, as the record shows, and it's not
disputed, they make copy after copy after copy onto each of the
Psystar computers. And the evidence in the record shows that
there are approximately 800 of them that have been sold so far.
Again, this additional copying is not an essential
step for using the software; the essential step occurred back
here (pointing). This is not a reselling of the software that
Psystar bought under the First-Sale Doctrine; this is making
multiple, multiple copies.
And then, as the Court knows, you can't just use
software by sticking it into the computer. The software is
loaded into the hard disk drive, but in order to run it has to
be loaded into RAM. This is the RAM over here (pointing).
So now when Psystar tests its computers, as the
evidence shows that it does, it makes yet another copy for each
of these, so instead of making one copy, we now have 1, 2, 3,
4, 8 copies.
I've put on these disks a red and a white sliver to
show that in making these copies, the second thing that Psystar
has done is that it has adapted Mac OS 10; it's changed it.
I'm not going to get into the question of whether it's a
derivative work right now; again, that's not necessary, but it
has supplanted, taken out Apple's boot loader. That is
uncontested; it's in Dr. Kelly's report. Mr. Pedraza agrees
that when Psystar's software is loaded onto its computers that
Apple's boot loader is not used. So, it has changed the boot
loader like taking chapter 1 out of a book and putting in a
different chapter. And it has disabled or replaced certain of
the other kernel extensions in the software.
Now, why did they do that? Well, those are the
kernel extensions that call the technological protection
measure. So, if this had not been replaced, then when Mac OS
10 had been loaded onto the Psystar computer the kernel
extension would have looked for the key, the lock and the key
mechanism, the encrypted files, they would have looked for the
key, but the key is not inside the computer. Rather, the key
is Apple's proprietary key; it's inside the Apple Computers.
So, what Psystar has done is taken away our kernel
extensions that look for the key and replaced them with its
kernel extension that contain the key. So now the software
will run where it was not intended: On non-Apple Computers.
It doesn't matter whether this is pursuant to a
license or a sale of the software because neither the Essential
Step defense --
THE COURT REPORTER: I'm sorry: neither what?
MR. GILLILAND: ... the Essential Step defense, nor the
First-Sale Doctrine allow making of these repeated copies.
Beyond that, with respect to the -- so, take a step
back. Apple has, I believe, I submit, established it prima
facie case of copyright infringement through all of the
undisputed facts. We own the copyrights; they have copied;
they don't have the authority to do that. It's, in fact,
prohibited by the software agreement. And they admit that with
respect to the breach of contract claim liability is clear.
So, really, for the Court, then, this boils down to
the question of whether Psystar can prove that it is somehow
excused from its infringement, either through a statutory
exception, or for some other reason.
Now, since Psystar has to prove its defenses, it has
the burden: It has to come forward with admissible evidence,
and I submit that it hasn't. There is lots of argument in its
briefs, but very, very little actual evidence. And, indeed, as
I said, what Psystar has done is said that they agree with
Apple's evidence; they agree with Dr. Kelly's report.
Dr. Kelly, says, quote, "In order to force Mac Os 10
to run on it's hardware, Psystar has modified the Mac Os 10
operating system installed on Psystar computers by at least, A,
supplanting the boot loader that allows Mac OS 10 to boot on a
genuine MAC; B, adding kernel extensions to Mac OS 10; and C,
disabling kernel extensions and/or removing them from Mac OS
10. That is in the Kelly declaration, paragraph 35(f).
So, with these multiple copies and with
modifications to the Mac OS 10 software, Psystar cannot win on
any of the defenses that it has asserted. It's asserted the
Essential Step defense, the First-Sale defense, and copyright
With respect to the statutory defenses, Essential
Step, as I've shown here, I hope, the multiple copies were not
essential. Essential Step defense is a narrow exception; the
parties agree on that. It's intended to allow someone to use
their software on their computer. It's for internal use only.
If you adapt the software, you are not allowed to resell the
adapted software without the permission of the copyright
holder. And Psystar has exceeded all of those limitations.
With respect to the First-Sale Doctrine, it does not
allow any copies whatsoever. The First-Sale defense says that
you can resell the copy that you purchased if you own it,
that's all it says. So that would mean that Psystar could
resell this disk right here. It cannot do any of these other
things under the First-Sale Doctrine. And that assumes that
it's the owner of a copy rather than the licensee.
The Court does not have to decide whether Psystar is
the owner or the licensee because the Essential Step and
First-Sale defenses do not apply, anyhow. But, if you do wish
to address that issue and weigh into a debate that is going on,
it's clear to Apple that there is a license here, a license
transaction, not a sale. Apple's software license agreement
comes with the disk. It says on the outside of the box before
you ever open it up, this is subject to a license.
Inside the box is a copy of the license agreement.
On the disk is the license agreement. The license agreement
says the software is licensed, not sold to you. It says, yes,
you own the disk itself, the transfer vessel, the medium by
which the software is delivered to you, but Apple retains title
to the software.
And the license puts substantial restrictions on the
use of that software, on the number of copies that can be made,
where it can be installed, how it can be transferred, and a
requirement that if there is a breach of the license, it
terminates immediately, and the software has to be --
THE COURT: If you were to win this motion, what
would be the remedy? And what else would there be to decide?
MR. GILLILAND: Well, so Psytar has indicated a
willingness to stipulate to an injunction of some sort, but
narrowly tailored to relate only to Leopard --
THE COURT REPORTER: Only to?
MR. GILLILAND: Leopard, Mac Os 10 version 10.5. We
think that the remedy has to be commensurate with the
violations, and the violations are an infringement of Apple's
copyrights in Leopard and Mac Os 10 and also circumvention of
our technological protection measure.
So there would need to be an injunction that would
be -- prohibit circumvention of our technological protection
measure through distributing the key, whether it be scrambled
or unscrambled, in plain text, or otherwise. We believe that
would be a necessary predicate.
Then the next question is, what would be left? And
in truth, Your Honor, probably not very much. There are
trademark infringement claims; there are breach of contract
claims. I would envision this case playing out in a way
similar to the MDY Versus Blizzard Arizona. There, when the
District Court issued an injunction, the parties were able to
stipulate to a monetary damage figure, dismiss everything else
without prejudice, and then allow the Ninth Circuit to consider
So, of course, Psystar would have to be agreeable to
that, but that is what I think is a likely outcome, were the
Court to rule in our favor.
THE COURT: All right, let's hear from the other
MR. GILLILAND: Thank you, Your Honor.
THE COURT: I'll give you a few moments of rebuttal.
MR. CAMARA: Your Honor, the two points I want to
focus on are two points that Apple didn't address at all, the
DMCA claim and copyright misuse. We do think that reaching the
DMCA claim is important because that is where the bulk of the
statutory damages are. Under the Copyright Act, statutory
damages are per work, so they get, presumably, the minimum for
infringement of one work, OS 10. But under the DMCA, statutory
damages are per active circumvention, which is literally every
time Psystar or one of those end users would sell one of those
computers that is engaged in circumvention.
Now, on the DMCA claim, the disagreement is over
whether or not you have to circumvent in order to commit
copyright infringement, or whether just any kind of
circumvention will do. Apple takes the position that any kind
of circumvention will do. We take the position that you have
to circumvent to infringe.
If you look at the Federal Circuit's decision in
Chamberlain, this Court's decision in Facebook, and other
decisions around the country, I think it's clear that a
copyright infringement as a result of circumvention is an
element of a DMCA claim.
So, if we focus on the acts of circumvention, that
circumvention happens only when someone boots up a Psystar
computer. It does not happen when Psystar is installing OS 10
and its own software on the imaging station, or on any of the
Psystar computers. So none of those arrows on the chart have
anything to do with a DMCA claim as opposed to the copyright
The only thing that circumvention allows you to do
is run OS 10, and running OS 10, whether it's by Psystar or the
by the end users, is in the core of the protection granted by
Section 117. So we argue that just like in Storage Tech,
because the circumvention is happening only to do something
which is permitted by 117, namely, running OS 10. It cannot be
a violation of the DMCA, and therefore we should get summary
judgment on that claim, and there should be no statutory
damages under the DMCA.
To answer the Court's question, we do think summary
judgment is appropriate either way, depending on how the Court
comes out on the law. We don't think there are fact issues.
The second point I want to reach is the defense
didn't address, which is copyright misuse. We think this is
actually a clear case of copyright misuse. And it's clear
because of the testimony of Apple's own witnesses. And here
I'm going to read or argue the testimony, so I don't know if
Apple wants to move to seal the courtroom.
But that testimony is that Apple put in place the
lock and key mechanism, the Haiku and the anti-circumvention
technology for one purpose, and one purpose alone, which was to
enforce the license term that ties OS 10 to Apple hardware. So
it's brought its copyright infringement and DMCA claims in this
case to enforce its ability to control how people use OS 10,
specifically, that they use OS 10 only on Apple-provided
hardware. And that is not a right granted by the Copyright
And the cases say, the copyright misuse cases say
that when you attempt to bring copyright claims to enforce a
right which is not one of the rights granted by the Copyright
Act, then that is copyright misuse. And you lose the right to
enforce your copyright, even on otherwise valid copyright
claims. We don't think those are valid claims, but we think
copyright misuse is dispositive of the entire case.
Now, on the facts, the Alcatel case in the Fifth
Circuit is almost exactly on point. That is the case where --
it was an operating system case, again, a maker of telephone
switches, I think, had a license provision that required that
the operating system be used only on their hardware. And the
Court in that case said that that constituted copyright misuse
for exactly the reasons that I just stated.
THE COURT: What was that case, again?
MR. CAMARA: It's Alcatel Versus DGI Technologies
Incorporated, 166 F.3d 772 at 793. And it's discussed in our
reply brief in support of our MSJ at page 8. I'll read the
"DGI reasons that as DSC's software is licensed to
customers to be used only in conjunction with DSC manufactured
hardware, DSC indirectly seeks to obtain copyright protection
of its hardware, its microprocessor card, through the
enforcement of its software copyright. We agree with the DSC
one-panel's conjecture and the jury's finding that the DMC's
licensing for its imports operating system constitutes misuse."
And you can take one of the very next sentences and
just plug in Apple, and it makes perfect sense:
operating system is licensed to customers to be used only in
connection with Apple manufactured hardware. That is what the
Fifth Circuit held was misuse.
But that's not the only case: There is the Practice
Management case from the Ninth Circuit, which held that an
attempt to generate exclusive use of a certain medical billing
system was copyright misuse for exactly the same reason: It
attempts to protect a right which is not protected by the
So Apple has made a big deal about the fact that we
haven't offered lots of document that kind of prove up our
affirmative defenses and drown the Court; we haven't done that
because we think it's a simple case and one which we can win on
using only the testimony of Apple's witnesses.
Every single Apple witnesses who we ask this
question to, and I think we asked all of them, testified that
the only reason the technological protection measure was put in
was to enforce the license term.
And, you know, these are cited at pages 9 and 10 of
our reply and in the copyright misuse section of our motion.
But just to give you an example, this is Simon Patience the
head of OS 10 development, testifying:
"Q. Did Apple install the Apple
protected binaries for any reason
other than limiting Mac Os 10 to Apple
"A. The April binaries were installed
specifically to enforce the license
section, which requires you to run Mac
OS 10 on Apple hardware."
There is similar testimony from Michael Culbert
(phonetic), from Robert Mansfield, and from several other Apple
witnesses, again, cited in the briefing. So we think copyright
misuse is clear, and we think that's dispositive of the case.
If the Court decides to reach the 117 and 109
arguments, we think it's clear that 109 and 117 apply because
the software license agreement states expressly that you are
the owner of the media on which the Apple software is recorded,
"you" in this case meaning Psystar. And the Copyright Act,
Section 101, defines a copy as the material object on which a
copyrighted work is recorded.
So, Apple talks a lot about how they have only
licensed OS 10, how they retain title to OS 10, how Psystar
doesn't own the OS 10; those are all true and not the point.
The question is whether or not Psystar has title to a copy of
OS 10, not to OS 10 itself, because if Psystar does have title
to such a copy, then it gets the benefit of 109 and 117.
If you look at 117, you know, the other argument
they make, they try to compare Psystar to a kind of a pirate,
and they do it using things like this diagram here, where they
make the suggestion that we take one copy of 0S 10, that disk
in the upper left-hand corner, and generate all these other
copies of OS 10, but that simply isn't the way Psystar's
business operates. Psystar buys one copy of OS 10 for every
computer that it makes.
THE COURT: Is that sworn to in this record?
MR. CAMARA: Kelly says it, and we don't oppose it.
So they try to create a fact question about it by citing to the
declaration of Ms. Smith, where she says she reviewed a variety
of financial records which aren't disclosed. So we think that
testimony is incompetent, and we didn't produce any because we
agree with Apple and Kelly.
THE COURT: Kelly is the Apple expert?
MR. CAMARA: Kelly is Apple's expert.
THE COURT: Read to me what Kelly says.
MR. CAMARA: Let me find where Apple says it.
Okay, so it's at the Apple motion at page 7. It's
cited at page 5 of our reply. And the quotation from Apple's
motion is, "as a result, Psystar actually transfers two copies
of Mac OS 10 with every computer it sells. Psystar includes
both a Mac Os 10 DVD and a hard drive copy of Mac Os 10 onto
the Psystar computer." So that is Apple talking at Apple
motion 7. And let me pull up what Apple cites. We, of course,
think that's sufficient since they've stated it in their
(Searching through motion.)
MR. CAMARA: So the citation is at page 7 of Apple's
motion for summary judgment. It's Footnote 38. And it cites
the Kelly declaration at paragraph 20; the Chung declaration at
Exhibit 9. It cites some deposition testimony.
I can pull that up --
THE COURT: Sorry, what is the page number in the
MR. CAMARA: Page 7 of the Apple motion and Footnote
38. And so the Apple motion itself says that we include a disk
with every computer. And then, it cites the Kelly declaration
and some deposition testimony.
So the only question --
THE COURT: But the copy that is on the hard drive
is not made from that particular disk, it's --
MR. CAMARA: That's correct.
THE COURT: -- it's made from your master system.
MR. CAMARA: That's correct. So it is, I suppose, a
conceivable outcome, and it seems to be Apple's argument, that
we could have our business if only we do it in the
time-consuming way, which is we tear open the Apple packages,
put in the Apple CD, and install them all by hand.
So that is the only difference here, but that
difference was addressed by this -- by the Ninth Circuit in
Wall Data in that footnote where they say that if everything
else were covered by 117, then the fact that you use an imaging
station, and, in fact, it was exactly like ours, an imaging
station that pushed out copies on multiple computers, that
alone would not would create copyright infringement. And if
forced to pick a doctrine, the Court would have picked fair
But the fundamental point is that, surely, the
difference between a legal business and not, the difference
between millions of dollars in damages and not, is not whether
or not we pick out the CD, put it in the drive, and load them
manually that way as opposed to using the imaging station.
question should turn on whether or not what we are really
doing, which is installing OS 10 with some Psystar software, is
legal or not and not with -- you know, whether we do it in an
efficient way or an inefficient way, which takes us to the next
point, which is the question of whether -- these white and red
Does the fact that Psystar installs its own software
along with OS 10, software that interoperates with OS 10
somehow cause there to be a problem. And we think not, for the
fundamental reason that if it is the case that installing two
different pieces of interoperable software creates a derivative
work or creates an adaptation under 117, then those derivative
works and adaptations are on every single computer that drives
multiple pieces of software. And all those software companies
would have, to be technically legal, obtain cross-licenses from
each other for all those derivative works. But that is not the
way the industry works.
What Apple would have this Court do is rule that way
so that the legality of all of these derivative works, supposed
derivative works that exits on all the computers, exists kind
of at the sufferance of the industry. And you can see why they
want that, because Apple is not going to sue Microsoft, and
Microsoft is not going to sue Apple. Who they are going to sue
are people like Psystar, who have nothing else to offer them,
and who are making these derivative works.
That Psystar doesn't create a derivative work when
it installs its own software along with Apple's, it does that
by right, it doesn't do that at the sufferance of Apple. And
that is not an argument we are making up: The Ninth Circuit
considered the question in Galoob when it talked about spell
checkers that replaced the spell checker in a word processing
program. Does introducing an improved spell checker create a
derivative work? Galub held, no. Galub held that it would be
contrary to the purpose of copyright to hold in the opposite
direction because it would stifle the creation of new works
like the improved spell checker.
THE COURT: What do you improve on here?
MR. CAMARA: We --
THE COURT: Why is your software an improved
version -- well, whether it's improved or not is subject to
argument. And we think we should be able to compete with
We think it's improved because it allows OS 10 to
run a wider range of hardware, which is something that our
customers enjoy. Whether that is better or not is to be a
subject of market competition, not legal competition.
And incidentally, we don't do this through some
obscure method. When they talk about kernel extensions, they
repeatedly try to argue as though this were some kind of hack,
basically, but it's not. We deposed their witnesses about
that, too. And when we deposed their witnesses about kernel
extensions -- and this testimony is in, I think, pages 1
through 8 of our response to their motion for summary judgment,
they testified that kernel extensions are part of both Darwin
and OS 10; that it's something they expected third parties to
do; that, in fact, the most common thing for kernel extensions
is to make OS 10 compatible with other hardware. They go on
So we're using the feature of OS 10 just like its
ability to run applications: It can run applications, and it
can run new hardware, like a digital camera. That is not the
problem; the problem is that Apple doesn't want it to run on a
specific kind of hardware, namely, computers not manufactured
by Apple. And why do they want that? Again, it goes back to
the misuse argument: It is not to protect their right in OS
10. Psystar increased its sales in OS 10 because we buy a copy
for every computer we sell. It is to protect other proprietary
rights; namely, their right to control our customers' use of OS
10, on which computers they use OS 10, and that is not a right
that is protected by the Copyright Act.
I would like to use the remainder of my time for any
questions the Court has. I can talk about remedies if the
Court would like.
THE COURT: What is your view on remedies?
MR. CAMARA: Our view on remedies is that the case
is moot if the Court agrees with us. If the Court agrees with
us on the DMCA claim, then the case is practically moot because
that eliminates their claim for statutory damages.
If the Court also agrees with us on the copyright
claim, then the case is really moot because Apple has waived
its claims for actual damages on all of its other causes of
action. Disgorgement is not a remedy for breach of contract.
And we have cited some California cases contrary to what Apple
asserts. And we think no injunction is appropriate because
neither party sells Leopard any more, so there is nothing to
THE COURT: No party what?
MR. CAMARA: Sells OS 10 Leopard any more. That is
the prior version of Mac OS 10 that we both sold at the time
this litigation commenced. And then we filed a case in Florida
over OS 10 Snow Leopard and over Rebel EFI, which is the
stand-alone version of our software.
THE COURT: Where does that case stand right now?
MR. CAMARA: It was served last week, so the answer
THE COURT: Has a motion to transfer been made?
MR. CAMARA: No.
THE COURT: All right.
Let me give a short rebuttal --
MR. CAMARA: Thank you, Your Honor.
THE COURT: -- to the other side. And then we'll
bring it to a close.
MR. GILLILAND: Thank you, Your Honor.
A couple of things. A motion for transfer will be
made now that the complaint has been served on us in Florida.
That would be due shortly before Thanksgiving.
I'll try to take Mr. Camara's points in order. He
talked about copyright misuse: There are two recognized
doctrines for copyright misuse. One is unfair competition,
antitrust. This Court has already found that there is no
antitrust -- viable antitrust allegation here.
The other would be proof, proof by Psystar that
Apple has done something to suppress creativity, that Apple has
used its copyrights in some way that would prevent Psystar from
developing its own operating system or its own computers. No
such evidence has been submitted whatsoever.
Mr. Camara made reference to the Alcatel case from
the Fifth Circuit, but he ignored the Triad case from the Ninth
Circuit. And this decision is controlled by Triad, which is at
64 F. 3rd 1330.
In the Triad case, the plaintiff's license agreement
said you can only use our software together with our hardware.
And the Ninth Circuit said, "We conclude that defendant cannot
show that it is likely to prevail on it's asserted copyright
misuse defense. Triad did not attempt to prohibit Southeastern
from developing its own service software to compete with
Triad." Precisely the same thing is true here; Apple has done
nothing to prevent Psystar from developing its own software.
Secondly, Mr. Camara says that under the DMCA we
have to prove infringement; that is not true. Section
1201(a)(1) says that circumventing a technological protection
measure which protects access to a copyrighted work is -- does
violate the DMCA.
And, of course, Mac OS 10 is a copyrighted work; the
technological protection measure protects access to it so that
it cannot be copied onto non-Apple Computers, which is one of
the rights of the copyright holder, the right to prohibit
reproduction of its copyrighted work.
Likewise, Judge Patel, in the RealNetworks case,
said that there is no fair use defense or anything of that
nature to a DMCA violation. The question is, rather, whether
the technological protection measure is reasonably related to
the right of the copyright owner. And, here, we say it most
With respect to Mr. Camara's argument that Psystar
has purchased one copy of Mac OS 10 for each of its computers
that it has sold, I say again that they have the burden of
proving this if they are going to claim a First-Sale defense or
an Essential Step defense.
THE COURT: They cite to your brief --
MR. GILLILAND: They cite --
THE COURT: -- and to your expert. So what do you
say to that?
MR. GILLILAND: I will direct the Court to Mr. --
Dr. Kelly's declaration, paragraph 15, Table 2. What Dr. Kelly
says is: In the computers that I looked at, the disk that came
with them had a different version of Mac OS 10 on it than the
computers. It does not say that they sold the disk with the
computer, it says specifically the opposite of that.
THE COURT: By that, does Kelly mean the encryption
segment is the only difference, or --
MR. GILLILAND: No, Your Honor. And if that -- if
the Court's has the opportunity later to look at Table 2,
you'll see that what Dr. Kelly says --
THE COURT: Show it to me. I don't remember that.
MR. GILLILAND: It's right here. I apologize for my
THE COURT: I'll give it back to you.
MR. GILLILAND: It looks like your letter that you
used -- you'll see that he says:
On computer A, loaded onto it
was version 10.5.2, but, in the box, was version 10.5.0.
THE COURT: I see. All right.
MR. GILLILAND: Maybe I have them reversed, but that
is the point.
Beyond that, Exhibit 68 is a letter from a customer
saying there is no disk in my box. And, as Mr. Camara pointed
out, the records that they produced show substantially fewer
purchases of Mac OS 10 DVDs.
THE COURT: What was the page number of Kelly there?
MR. GILLILAND: This is Dr. Kelly's declaration in
support of Apple's motion for summary judgment. It's page 6,
Table 2, and summarized in his paragraph 15, Your Honor.
THE COURT: All right.
MR. GILLILAND: Last point with respect to
derivative works. As I said earlier, it's not necessary to
address that question. The Essential Step talks about
adaptations, doesn't talk about derivative works. If there is
an adaptation made, Section 117(b) says it cannot be sold
without the permission of the copyright holder, the original
copyright holder. There can be no doubt that there is an
adaptation going on here because otherwise this would not run
on an non-Apple Computer.
Beyond that, we think that it's a false simile being
used here: Running a word processor on top of the operating
system is an authorized use of the operating the system.
Ripping out the boot loader and putting in a new one, or
turning off the kernel extensions and putting in your own is
not authorized by any license agreement or any agreement
between Apple and Psystar.
THE COURT: All right.
MR. GILLILAND: That's all I got, Your Honor. Thank
THE COURT: Mr. Camara, I will give you a couple of
minutes if you want to have any response.
MR. CAMARA: I'd like to direct my comments at
whatever the Court's interested in. I can pick some topics,
THE COURT: What do you say to the Kelly thing,
the -- Kelly is not quite as expansive as -- you said that you
accepted Apple's version that you include a disk with every
single Psystar unit sold, but the actual Kelly testimony is
narrower than that and was really making a different point,
that the versions that they sampled were not the same versions
that were loaded onto the hard drive.
MR. CAMARA: I have two responses, Your Honor.
First, Mr. Gilliland cited a different section of the Kelly
report, which is not the section cited in his brief, which is
what I quoted to you word for word. So, their brief does say
exactly what I said in exactly those words. And the Court can
obviously verify that.
THE COURT: Let's get to the bottom of that now.
MR. CAMARA: Sure.
THE COURT: Go get the place that you cited.
And I -- I think you said it was page 7, Footnote
MR. CAMARA: Page 7 of Apple's motion for summary
THE COURT: Footnote 38. So, what do they cite
to -- there, for Kelly, there?
MR. CAMARA: Here is page 7 of their motion. This
is them talking, the direct quotation:
"As a result, Psystar actually transfers two copies
of Mac OS 10 with every computer it sells. Psystar includes
both a Mac OS 10 DVD, which was not used in any way during the
installation of Mac OS 10, and a hard drive copy of Mac Os 10
on the Psystar computer."
That is a direct quotation. They stated it in their
motion. We didn't contest it. We seek summary judgment based
on the facts as they have asserted them.
Now they have a footnote --
THE COURT: But that is in their opening motion.
MR. CAMARA: Yes.
THE COURT: When was your opening motion?
MR. CAMARA: In our opening motion, we simply
asserted -- frankly, Your Honor, we weren't aware that this was
a contested thing, so we have just asserted it. It may be that
in some deposition testimony cited by one of the parties; I
don't have that citation for the Court right now.
As soon as we got this motion from Apple, we thought
it was genuinely not contested because Apple says it right
here. I can explain what Kelly is talking about, if the Court
would like that.
THE COURT: Well, but you said that this Footnote 38
cited some different part of the Kelly; what does it cite to?
MR. CAMARA: Kelly declaration, paragraph 20; Chung
declaration, Exhibit 9 at 87, 9 to 89, 23; 112, 19 to 113, 25;
and Exhibit 17 that numbers 55 to 56.
THE COURT: All right.
MR. CAMARA: I must apologize, Your Honor, I don't
know quite what all those things are, but, again, our position
is they have asserted it; they have cited authority for it, so
we think we are entitled to take it as an undisputed fact, if
we are willing to agree to it, which we are.
THE COURT: All right, time's up. Sorry.
MR. CAMARA: Thank you, Your Honor.
THE COURT: Under submission. Thank you.
MR. GILLILAND: Thank you, Your Honor.
THE COURT: You're welcome.
(Proceedings adjourned at 2:53 p.m.)