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A Flurry of Project Monterey Press Releases from 1998-1999
Tuesday, March 17 2009 @ 02:07 PM EDT

In connection with completing our records on Groklaw, we've set up a permanent page for our coverage of Project Monterey, a major theme in the SCO v. IBM litigation. Here are some press releases to add to our collection, which confirm all that we already knew or suspected about Project Monterey.

Why does it matter now? Because eventually, the SCO v. IBM litigation will ramp up again, after the SCO bankruptcy is over, and SCO claims that some of its Project Monterey claims survived the decision in SCO v. Novell that Novell retained the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights in the Novell/Santa Cruz deal in 1995. IBM denies that any of SCO's Project Monterey claims survive. You can fully trace both sides' positions on our new permanent Project Monterey page. It's also worth doing so as to complete and preserve the historical record, which has already partially 'disappeared'.

First, I'll show you the IBM announcement of the project in 1998, then the IBM-Sequent announcement of their merger in 1999 and a later press release on the Sequent merger, both of which show that IBM announced publicly back then that it would be selling NUMA and other Sequent software in IBM's products immediately, not only in connection with Project Monterey. If SCO objected to NUMA et al, 1999 would have been the time to say so, one would think. Then there is a Bull/IBM press release, confirming that Project Monterey was designed from day one to run on IBM's Power architecture. Finally, there's an interesting report on Project Monterey progress in a joint 1999 press release, which discusses technology going in both directions and showing that the software development was ahead of progress, although Merced wasn't ready.

Here's IBM's announcement of the project in October of 1998, and in contrast to SCO's account of the project, it clearly indicates that IBM was taking the lead and that SCO's contribution was largely supportive, with an Intel VP quoted in the release listing SCO's contribution as mainly "SCO'S shrink-wrap UNIX expertise and channels". What did he say IBM was contributing? -- "IBM's enterprise expertise and software."

You'll note that Power is mentioned right there in the announcement, in contradiction of SCO's claim in SCO v. IBM that it was never contemplated that Project Monterey would be on Power. I note too that Intel contributed Intel technical support, indicating to me IBM didn't need that from SCO, particularly when IBM's other partner, Sequent, is listed as the leading provider of high-end Unix on Intel systems, while SCO is called the market share volume leader, which I guess means they sold a lot to small and medium sized businesses. And SCO's Doug Michels is clearly thrilled to be included by IBM at all:

"SCO is delighted to be at the heart of this major announcement," said Doug Michels, SCO's CEO. "It's a great opportunity to take SCO's products to a new range of enterprise customers. Customers can now deploy major applications on both 32-bit and 64-bit technology, with the volume economics of a reliable, scaleable UNIX-on-Intel. We see this collaboration with IBM -- the company that invented enterprise computing -- and Intel, as a major benefit for our customers, OEM partners, and ISVs."
Here's the meat of the press release, emphasis mine:
IBM Launches Major UNIX Initiative

Significant Support from SCO, Sequent, Intel and OEMs

Somers, N.Y - 26 Oct 1998: . . . IBM today announced a major UNIX operating system initiative with a number of industry partners. This initiative will create a high-volume platform that will expand business opportunities for ISVs and OEMs.

As part of this initiative, a UNIX operating system will be developed for Intel's IA-64 using IBM's AIX operating system enterprise capabilities complemented with technology from SCO's UnixWare and Sequent's PTX operating system. IBM will also transfer AIX technology to SCO's UnixWare and promote the offering in the UNIX on IA-32 market. The result will be a single UNIX operating system product line that runs on IA-32, IA-64 and IBM microprocessors, in computers that range from entry-level to large enterprise servers.

IBM will make significant investments to make this the leading UNIX operating system. IBM's investments will be directed at: porting IBM's middleware portfolio; operating system development to exploit Intel IA-32 and IA-64 and IBM's Power architecture; and investments in technical and marketing support for ISVs.

Intel is providing substantive technical and marketing support to make this operating system the leading UNIX for Intel platforms. IBM and Intel are creating a multi-million dollar ISV fund for this UNIX. This will help software companies deliver middleware tools and application programs for this UNIX environment.

In support of this initiative, IBM has forged alliances with SCO and Sequent, and has gained support from leading OEMs and ISVs.

SCO, the market share volume leader of UNIX operating systems, and IBM will collaborate to accelerate enhancements to SCO's UnixWare product for IA-32. Also, SCO and IBM will work together to co-develop and market this UNIX for the IA-64 based market.

Sequent, the leading provider of high-end, Intel-based UNIX systems, will be a co-developer, contributing its cc:NUMA technology and Intel architecture expertise.

"The combination of IBM's enterprise expertise and software, SCO's shrink-wrap UNIX expertise and channels, Sequent's system expertise on IA, and the price-performance benefits of Intel architecture will make this a high-volume UNIX leader," said John Miner, vice president and general manager of Intel's enterprise server group. "Intel strongly supports this software initiative, and will work with IBM and SCO to make this the first UNIX port for all computer manufacturers and software developers."

"We're extending into broader markets with our award-winning AIX software that delivers the reliability and security required of an enterprise-class operating system," said Bob Stephenson, senior vice president, IBM Server Group. "Working with these companies, we're capitalizing on the base of proven leadership technologies to deliver the world's best UNIX on Power microprocessor and high-volume Intel microprocessor systems."

"SCO is delighted to be at the heart of this major announcement," said Doug Michels, SCO's CEO. "It's a great opportunity to take SCO's products to a new range of enterprise customers. Customers can now deploy major applications on both 32-bit and 64-bit technology, with the volume economics of a reliable, scaleable UNIX-on-Intel. We see this collaboration with IBM -- the company that invented enterprise computing -- and Intel, as a major benefit for our customers, OEM partners, and ISVs."

"Sequent is committed to delivering our customers the industry's leading UNIX for IA-64 with the introduction of Merced-based systems. The AIX partnership provides the clear choice, combining proven technology, tremendous resources and unprecedented industry support," said Casey Powell, chairman and CEO of Sequent.

A number of computer systems manufacturers announced their plans to use the new UNIX software. They include Acer, CETIA-a subsidiary of Thomson-CSF, Groupe Bull, ICL, Motorola Computer Group, and Unisys Computer Systems.

Leading software companies announced their support for the new UNIX software. They include BEA Systems, Data Pro Accounting Software, Informix, Infospace, Micro Focus, Netscape, Novell, Pick Systems, Progress Software, Real World, Risk Management Technology, Software AG, and TakeFive.

IBM also announced it will deliver its software products, such as the DB2 database program, on the SCO UnixWare software.

Later, there were issues with Merced, delay after delay, and eventually Project Monterey faded away. But before that happened, IBM and Sequent merged in 1999, and you'll notice that the press release announcing it says as clear as a bell that IBM would be including NUMA in its offerings right away after the merger. That means to me that SCO waited years to notice or to care or to sue over NUMA. Obviously, no MIT deep divers were needed to find NUMA in IBM products, because the 1999 press release says openly that while at the time Project Monterey was still being worked on, IBM would begin incorporating NUMA into its products *immediately*:

IBM and Sequent Announce Merger Agreement

BEAVERTON, Ore - 12 Jul 1999: . . . IBM and Sequent Computer Systems today announced they have entered into a merger agreement. The merger brings together unique hardware and software technologies with global presence and partnerships, advancing IBM's thrust in UNIX and NT servers. IBM will pay $18.00 in cash for each outstanding share of Sequent common stock. The transaction, when completed, is expected to have a total equity value of approximately $810 million.

IBM plans to begin selling Sequent's product line worldwide immediately following completion of the merger. IBM will integrate Sequent technologies into IBM products. Similarly, Sequent will benefit from IBM's technological, manufacturing and global sales prowess. These actions support IBM's strategy to deliver leadership solutions for e-businesses, emerging "NetGen" companies and UNIX and NT customers, large and small.

Sequent is an acknowledged leader in systems based on NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture with a worldwide customer installed base. NUMA is advanced hardware and software that allows large numbers of processors to operate as a single system while maintaining the ease of programming and manageability of a small system. Sequent's systems use up to 64 Intel microprocessors (with plans to use 256) for a wide variety of e-business related applications, including data warehousing and business intelligence. Many of the world's largest Oracle databases and application environments run on Sequent's servers.

"NUMA will be a defining technology for early 21st century UNIX and NT servers," said Robert M. Stephenson, IBM senior vice president and group executive, IBM Server Group. "Increasingly, customers want servers that can scale quickly to manage unpredictable workloads or spikes in online traffic. NUMA is an elegant solution, combining industry leading scalability and excellent manageability. We're impressed by the people and technology at Sequent and look forward to working with them, their customers and their partners."

Today, many enterprises use both UNIX and NT servers, and this trend will increase over time. Sequent has innovative technology that helps UNIX and NT interoperate on a single system. Customers can choose to run UNIX applications on some processors within a system while running NT applications on other processors at the same time. The system can be managed from a single point, and data can be shared between the UNIX and NT applications.

In October of 1998, Sequent was a founding member of Project Monterey, an IBM-led initiative to create a high-volume, enterprise-ready, commercial UNIX operating system supporting both IBM and Intel architectures. SCO and Intel also were original members, and Project Monterey has since expanded to include many leading software vendors and systems manufacturers. This merger will enhance the development efforts of Project Monterey, which is poised to become the industry's leading commercial UNIX, providing economies-of-scale to customers, software vendors and systems manufacturers.

"Sequent will be able to extend its customer base by taking advantage of IBM's global presence and partnerships," said Casey Powell, chairman and CEO of Sequent. "With IBM, Sequent becomes part of the worldwide leader in server sales and enterprise computing and a major force in filling the fast-growing demand for commercial UNIX systems. Our progress with IBM on Project Monterey has been extraordinarily productive so we're confident we'll work well together. We look forward to joining IBM."

Sequent's systems complement IBM's scalable RS/6000 line of servers. IBM's RS/6000 UNIX systems range from scientific and commercial workstations to the world's most powerful supercomputers. In fact, the new RS/6000 S80 server (which will begin shipping in the third quarter) has set records for Internet, Java and clustering performance. Add to this Sequent's leading performance in online transaction processing and data warehousing, and the new, dual lineup is the runaway winner in competitive performance.

As a result of the merger:

-- IBM will market and sell Sequent's NUMA-Q 1000 and 2000 using IBM's worldwide sales force.

-- IBM will enable its business partner network to market and sell Sequent's current products.

-- The IBM and Sequent development teams will accelerate their work on Project Monterey.

-- IBM's servers will incorporate Sequent's NUMA technology.

-- IBM will provide middleware support for Sequent's current product line.

Sequent, headquartered in Beaverton, Ore., has more than 2500 employees worldwide with 56 sales offices in North America, Europe and Asia and is the leader in Intel-based data center solutions. Founded in 1983, Sequent pioneered symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) and NUMA systems for commercial environments. In March of 1998, Sequent introduced the industry leading path to Windows NT in the data center with the introduction of the NUMACenter mixed UNIX and Windows NT environment. This solution allows customers to build their IT infrastructures leveraging the respective strengths of UNIX and Windows NT.

The completion of the merger is subject to Sequent stockholder and regulatory approvals.

When the merger was complete, IBM put out another press release, again giving notice that it was putting NUMA into its products:
IBM Announces Completion of Sequent Merger

Somers, N.Y - 24 Sep 1999: -- IBM today announced the completion of its merger with Sequent Computer Systems. Sequent, based in Beaverton, Oregon, today becomes a wholly-owned subsidiary of IBM.

As a result of the merger:

- IBM will market and sell Sequent's NUMA-Q 1000 and 2000 servers as the NUMA-Q brand under the IBM logo.
- IBM will enable its business partner network to market and sell Sequent's current products.
- IBM and Sequent development teams will accelerate their work on Project Monterey.
- Future IBM servers will incorporate NUMA technology.
Sequent is an acknowledged leader in systems based on NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture. NUMA is advanced hardware and software that allows large numbers of processors to operate as a single system while maintaining the ease of programming and manageability of a small system. Sequent's systems use up to 64 Intel microprocessors (with plans to use 256) for a wide variety of e-business related applications, including transaction processing, customer relationship management and business intelligence. Sequent also has innovative technology called NUMACenter that helps UNIX and NT interoperate on a single system.
Could that be any clearer? As you see, IBM said it was immediately including NUMA and would sell it, that work on Project Monterey was still going on, and that it would be putting NUMA into future products too. Could you be more up-front than that? If SCO had a problem with NUMA, that would have been the time to say so.

In December of 1999, there was a press release announcing that Bull and IBM were extending their partnership, and once again we find confirmation about Project Monterey and Power:

Bull and IBM Extend Agreement for AIX Software and Systems

December 20 - 20 Dec 1999: . . . Bull and IBM announced today an extension of their agreement related to Power processor-based UNIX systems and the AIX operating system. With this extension, Bull and IBM intend to continue their relationship for at least the next five years. The new agreement builds on those between the companies that go back seven years.

The Bull and IBM engineering collaboration will continue with work on the AIX operating system including multiple applications workload management, Web-based systems management, reliability and availability features to maximize applications uptime. Bull and IBM will focus on continuing to improve 64-bit processing performance.

Bull servers division president, Didier Breton, said, "We've had excellent success in growing sales and market share for high-end AIX and Power-based systems in Europe, and our engineering cooperation with IBM has been a major contributing factor. This new agreement reinforces our plans to continue rapid growth in mission critical, high-end AIX and Power systems."

IBM's vice president of server development, Doug Grose, said, "Bull is expanding the presence of AIX and Power-based UNIX systems and is an important development partner for IBM."

AIX is a cornerstone of the Project Monterey UNIX operating system being developed for IBM Power and Intel IA-32 and IA-64 processors. Bull is a member of the Project Monterey OEM Council, a group of leading hardware suppliers that support the Project Monterey initiative to develop a volume, enterprise-class, commercial UNIX operating system using technologies from IBM AIX and NUMA-Q brands, as well as SCO UnixWare.

Since 1992, the Bull-IBM relationship has received praise from software companies such as Baan, Oracle and SAP.

Interestingly, SCO had on its website at one time a press release about Project Monterey, and I saved it from the site, which no longer resolves, but you can still find it here. As you'll see, Merced wasn't timely available, so Project Monterey was tested on a "Merced simulator." The software, in contrast, was ahead of schedule, so this confirms where the problem came from, but notice how the developers were making AIX and UnixWare 7 interoperable:
IBM, SCO and Sequent Report Project Monterey Is Ahead Of Schedule
64-Bit UNIX Operating System Up and Running on Intel's Merced Simulator

NEW YORK, NY (April 7, 1999) - IBM, SCO, and Sequent today said they have successfully completed initial tests of the Project Monterey, operating system running on the Merced simulator for the Intel IA-64 architecture. Project Monterey is a high-volume, enterprise-class, commercial UNIX operating system initiative launched last October.

The participants in Project Monterey declared that in less than five months of development, the prototype for the UNIX operating system for IA-64 is up and running. The testing, conducted at a development center in the United States, marked the first development milestone in Project Monterey.

Also unveiled today were broad software vendor support, accelerated product roadmaps through 2001 and the launch of a comprehensive developer program.

The goal for Project Monterey is to establish a high-volume, enterprise-class UNIX product line that runs across Intel IA-32 and IA-64 processors and IBM's Power processors in systems that range from departmental to large data center servers. In addition, UNIX vendors conforming to the UNIX Developer's Guide-Programming Interfaces (UDG-PI) specifications are supported by the Project Monterey family.

As part of the Project Monterey initiative, a UNIX operating system is being developed for Intel's IA-64 architecture using IBM's AIX operating system's enterprise capabilities complemented with technology from SCO's UnixWare operating system and Sequent's enterprise technologies. In addition, IBM will license AIX technology to SCO for inclusion in UnixWare and promote this offering to the IA-32 market.

"Project Monterey continues to build significant momentum and commitment across the entire UNIX industry," said Rajiv Samant, general manager, UNIX, IBM Corporation. "In less than five months we, in collaboration with our partners, have delivered on one of our key product development goals for the UNIX operating system on IA-64. We are also gaining unprecedented support from the software and hardware vendor communities that we will aggressively build upon. What we are doing is delivering the industry leading, high-volume, enterprise-class UNIX operating system," Samant continued. "Our customers can be assured that our goal is to help them realize benefits from volume economics, innovation and enterprise-class quality for their 32-bit and 64-bit UNIX systems."

Integrated Roadmap to a IA-64 UNIX

Yesterday, IBM, Intel, SCO and Sequent briefed industry consultants on a fully integrated product roadmap for the Monterey product line. The integrated product roadmap will offer customers and independent software providers a consistent environment using common APIs, operating system services and Web-based systems management.

In 1999, Sequent will re-brand its operating system "UnixWare ptx Edition" providing API and ABI compatibility with the UnixWare family of products. SCO will supplement its UnixWare 7 products with initial AIX libraries and headers for application support, as well as AIX system management enhancements.

Comprehensive Developer Program Launched

The Project Monterey briefing outlined a comprehensive plan to facilitate availability of applications on the UNIX operating system for IA-64. Targeted applications written for UnixWare today on IA-32 platforms will be binary and source-compatible on IA-64-based systems. To leverage the performance advantages of the IA-64 platform, developers can simply recompile UnixWare application source code with expected minimal rewrites. Similarly, AIX applications are fully source-code-compatible with the new UNIX operating system on the IA-64 platform. The Project Monterey developer program will include porting guides and a common set of APIs for IA-32, IA-64 and IBM Power processor platforms. Developers also will be able to leverage an extensive set of enterprise middleware from IBM and other software vendors who participate. Project Monterey will offer key developers access to porting centers worldwide, as well as ongoing developer events hosted by IBM, SCO and Intel throughout the year. The porting centers will provide developers with technical support, porting/enablement, performance testing and technical education on the new UNIX operating system on IA-64. Later this year, the IBM Solution Partnership Center in Waltham, Mass., is expected to extend its capabilities to support UNIX development on the Intel platforms.

Doug Michels, president and CEO of SCO, said, "We've not only completed the initial port to Merced in record time, but we've also set up an integrated product road map and developer program to guide our business partners in deploying this exciting high-volume UNIX system to businesses of all sizes. The Project Monterey partners already drive a huge portion of a worldwide UNIX System business that totals billions of dollars every year, and our momentum continues to increase as other OEMs and ISVs join Project Monterey."

Casey Powell, Chairman and CEO of Sequent said, "Project Monterey offers customers the ability to build IT infrastructure on a single data center class UNIX operating system without the risk that comes with being tied to one vendor and one world view. As part of Project Monterey and with UnixWare ptx Edition we deliver a proven platform with an expansive roadmap for 32-bit and 64-bit systems and broad multi-vendor compatibility."

Industry Support from OEMs and ISVs

John Miner, vice president, general manager of Intel's Enterprise Server Division, said: "Project Monterey is an important product initiative for the UNIX market with its focus on providing a high volume UNIX operating. This is a major milestone. We are thrilled that the Monterey team has accomplished so much in such a short time. It is clear that Monterey is now on track to intercept Merced production."

In less than five months, Project Monterey has garnered support from nearly all major ISVs in the database, business intelligence, e-business and enterprise resource planning business segments.

Last October, leading software companies announced their support for Project Monterey. They include BEA Systems, Compuware, Data Pro Accounting Software, Informix, Infospace, Micro Focus, Netscape Communications Corporation, Novell, PeopleSoft, Pick Systems, Progress Software, Rational, Real World, Risk Management Technology, Software AG, SAS Institute and Take Five.

Also today, new ISVs announced their support for Monterey. They are: Baan Company, BMC Software, daly.commerce, ISOCOR, Marcam Solutions, Sapiens, Sendmail and TIBCO.

Project Monterey also has garnered support from hardware suppliers including Acer, Bull, CETIA ( a subsidiary of Thomson-CF), IBM Netfinity, ICL, Sequent Computer Systems and Unisys Computer Systems.

UNIX Developer's Guide-Programming Interface

In a separate initiative, a group of industry leaders, including IBM, SCO, Sequent, Compaq and Intel, recently announced the UNIX Developer's Guide - Programming Interfaces. The UDG-PI is a collaborative effort to develop and publish guidelines that software developers and system manufacturers can use for UNIX operating systems running on the Intel microprocessor architecture. These guidelines are designed to help reduce development, maintenance and test costs for software developers and system manufacturers. Additional information on IBM and UNIX can be found at

For more information on Project Monterey visit:

* IBM :
* SCO: (SCO's trading symbol is SCOC)
* Sequent:
Trademarks: IBM, AIX and Netfinity are trademarks of IBM Corporation. SCO, the SCO logo and UnixWare are registered trademarks of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries. Sequent is a registered trademark of Sequent Computer Systems, Inc. All other brand and product names are or may be trademarks of and are used to identify products or services of their respective owners.

It's so funny that this material disappeared from SCO's site. You can't even get it on Wayback, but the IBM and Sequent links take you to a page where you can search by keywords PROJECT MONTEREY (or by year) and find the historical record.

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