Here's the next installment of The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin, Chapter 22, "Yet More Peguins," by Dr. Peter Salus. It is the last for about a month, after which Dr. Salus will begin again. Earlier chapters can be found here.
The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin
~ by Dr. Peter H. Salus
Chapter 22: Yet More Penguins
Debian Linux, as I stated in Chapter 20, was
created by Ian Murdock. He officially founded
the "Project" on August 16, 1993. From November
1994 to November 1995, the Debian Project was
sponsored by the FSF.
In November 1995, Infomagic released an experimental version
of Debian which was only partially in ELF format as
"Debian 1.0." On December 11, Debian and Infomagic
jointly announced that this release "was screwed." Bruce
Perens, who had succeeded Murdock as "leader," said that the
data placed on the 5-CD set would most likely not even
The real result was that the "real" release, Buzz,
was 1.1 (June 17, 1996), with 474 packages. Bruce was employed
by Pixar and so all Debian releases are named after characters in
Toy Story (1995).
Buzz fit on one CD. Slink went to two. Sarge
is on 14 CDs in the official set. It was released fully translated
to over 30 languages and contains a new debian-installer.
Slink had also introduced ports to the Alpha and Sparc. In
1999, Debian also began a Hurd port.
- 1.2 Rex, December 12, 1996 (848 packages)
- 1.3 Bo, June 5, 1997 (974 packages)
- 2.0 Hamm, July 24, 1998 ("over 1500 packages")
- 2.1 Slink, March 9, 1999 ("about 2250 packages")
- 2.2 Potato, August 15, 2000 ("more than 3900 binary packages")
- 3.0 Woody, July 19, 2002 (8500 binary packages)
- 3.1 Sarge, June 6, 2005 (15,400 packages)
Though Debian carried the burden of being tough to install for
several years, Sarge has changed that. The new installer
with automatic hardware detection is quite remarkable.
I introduced Red Hat in Chapter 19, and I will return to the
company again, but at this point I'd like to introduce Mandrake,
a Linux distribution based on Red Hat 5.1 and KDE. It was
created by Gael Duval, a graduate of Caen University, in July
1998. From 1998 to early 2004, Mandrake was reasonably
successful, notable for its high degree of internationalization
as well as the variety of chips it would run on. However,
in February 2004 MandrakeSoft lost a suit filed by the Hearst
Syndicate which claimed invasion of their trademarked "Mandrake the Magician." Starting with 10.0, there was a
minor name change. Then, in April 2005, Mandrakesoft announced
that there was a merger with Conectiva, and that the new name
would be Mandriva.
Joseph Cheek founded Redmond Linux in 2000. In 2001 it merged
with DeepLinux. In January 2002 the company was renamed Lycoris
and its Desktop/LX was based on Caldera's Workstation 3.1. In
June 2005, Lycoris was acquired by Mandriva.
I've gone through all this to show just how complex the tale of
Linux distributions can be. And, as of this writing, there
appear to be well over 100 distributions. I will neither
enumerate nor elaborate on most of them. However, the most
"popular" appear to be:
- Red Hat
- SuSE/SUSE (Novell)
- Yellow Dog
- College Linux
It might be a full-time job to track all the distributions and
their origins. For instance, Kanotix is a Debian derivative.
It is also a Knoppix derivative, as it is a live CD. And it is
solid as a rock.
Knoppix was created by Klaus Knopper, a freelance IT/Linux
consultant. It has achieved popularity because it is easily
run from the CD, without installation and because it can
be readily employed to fix corrupted file systems, etc. It was
the first Linux on a live CD.
In 1996, Bob Young and Red Hat moved corporate headquarters to
North Carolina. In January 1997, Greylock and August Capital
invested $6.25 million in Cygnus Solutions, becoming the
first VCs to invest in a free software business. In July,
Red Hat 4.2 was released and in December, 5.0 was announced.
These are important events, as could be seen in November 1998
when a Microsoft lawyer waved a Red Hat box in the air to
"refute" the US Justice Department charge that Microsoft has
a monopoly on the desktop operating system market.
While Red Hat may not have been the most innovative company,
they had already become the iconic Linux enterprise.
In August of 1999, Red Hat had its IPO, the eighth largest
first day gain in Wall Street history. (On 9 December 1999,
VA Linux had its IPO.) And in November 1999, Red Hat acquired
Cygnus, creating the largest "open source" company in the
Just how successful Linux and some Linux companies had become
was made obvious at the outset of the new millennium:
- In January 2001 Scott McNealy said that Linux is a "better
NT than NT";
- In February 2001 Steve Ballmer called Linux "a cancer" and
"an intellectual property destroyer."
Dr. Salus is the author of "A Quarter Century of UNIX" and several other books, including "HPL: Little Languages and Tools", "Big Book of Ipv6 Addressing Rfcs", "Handbook of Programming Languages (HPL): Imperative Programming Languages", "Casting the Net: From ARPANET to INTERNET and Beyond", and "The Handbook of Programming Languages (HPL): Functional, Concurrent and Logic Programming Languages". There is an interview with him, audio and video,"codebytes: A History of UNIX and UNIX Licences" which was done in 2001 at a USENIX conference. Dr. Salus has served as Executive Director of the USENIX Association.
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