In the last story, a comment was left challenging the importance of the 1999 press release I found in which a SCO VP enthused about Project Monterey and AIX on POWER. The reader wrote:
"Unfortunately this is all about SVR4 in AIX, not about AIX on Power.
Maybe you should try to go read something about Joint Project Work and so."
Groklaw already addressed that issue about SVR4 several times. But new readers keep showing up. Here's what it's about. It was reported in the media that SCO was saying that IBM only had a license to use SCO's SVR4 code on Intel, but that after Project Monterey sputtered out, IBM used it on POWER, but IBM had no license for anything but SVR3 for POWER. Supposedly SCO has unearthed emails in discovery that they allege prove this theory.
Shy though I am, I never shy away from a research challenge. So I looked around (thank you, Google Scholar), and here are some things I found that demonstrate to me that the goal of Project Monterey was to eliminate fragmentation, to increase compatibility, and POWER was not in some SVR3 ghetto. POWER was part of the original Project Monterey project, not an afterthought. Another goal was Linux compatibility. Yup. At least that is what I have concluded. See if you agree, after you've examined the evidence. I've highlighted the juicy parts in red.
Let's start with this quotation, from "Project Monterey: A Strategic Approach to Business Computing" [PDF]:
Project Monterey is a major UNIX operating system initiative led by IBM ®, joined by SCO, with participation from Intel ® as well as major hardware and software companies from around the world. Under the Project Monterey banner, IBM is working with SCO and others to deliver a single UNIX product line that will run on systems based on IBM Power and Intel 32- and 64-bit architectures.
The goal is simple: to produce a single UNIX product line with broad industry support in order to provide organizations with the widest choice of critical business solutions, leadership technology and the flexibility to run across servers ranging from the workgroup to the data center.
The starting point for reaching that goal is AIX ®, IBM’s industry-leading enterprise UNIX operating environment. Project Monterey establishes an enhanced investment strategy for AIX that will accelerate the delivery of new features and capabilities on IBM processors, such as the planned incorporation of Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) technology from IBM NUMA-Q (formerly Sequent).
In addition, Project Monterey will extend AIX enterprise strengths to the Intel architecture. SCO is incorporating AIX technology into UnixWare to provide an enhanced UNIX operating system for Intel’s 32-bit architecture, IA-32. And to ensure broader compatibility across the product line, UnixWare will be supported by selected IBM tools, middleware and applications. . . .
AIX has been tuned for optimum Internet/intranet performance and capabilities. RS/6000 servers running a pre-release version of AIX 4.3.3 — the first AIX release to be influenced by Project Monterey — recently set new records in Web, Java and SMP NFS performance. . . .
With developers in mind, a great deal of thought and attention has gone into providing compatibility across the Project Monterey product line. This will make it easier for developers to support the leading microprocessor architectures, IA-32, IA-64 and IBM Power. The end result will be greater application availability across Monterey/64, UnixWare and AIX. . . .
And businesses can help protect investments as the business environment continues to evolve. By promoting compatibility across different architectures, the single Project Monterey product line will help to protect hardware investments while also permitting the integration of new technologies as needed. And by providing common systems management, it helps companies leverage existing skills and control costs.
Catch that? "The single Project Monterey product line." "Under the Project Monterey banner, IBM is working with SCO and others to deliver a single UNIX product line that will run on systems based on IBM Power and Intel 32- and 64-bit architectures."
Could it get any clearer? Not satisfied? OK. Here's some more.
Another PDF for you, on Project Monterey, also published in 2000, with SCO and IBM logos on it:
The strategy behind Project Monterey is brilliantly simple and clearly focused: deliver the volume, enterprise UNIX platform that spans the leading processor architectures— IBM Power, Intel IA-32 and the upcoming IA-64. Project Monterey enables customers to take advantage of a broad applications portfolio across heterogeneous systems using a common deployment model and skills base.
To meet these objectives, IBM and SCO are combining a rich set of enterprise technologies to deliver a single UNIX product line, supported by a common development environment that allows software developers to exploit these three architectures with a single investment.
The Project Monterey strategy includes a reduction in UNIX fragmentation achieved through enhancements to and technology exchanges among the current products— AIX, ®UnixWare,®and DYNIX/ptx.®Project Monterey is growing our UNIX offerings on today’s leading architectures and enabling seamless integration of Intel’s forthcoming IA-64 architecture. . . .
By delivering a common set of APIs for the IA-32, IA-64, and Power architectures, an extensive set of middleware, and common set of development tools, Project Monterey will enable ISVs to develop a single source that can be compiled for multiple architectures. A comprehensive library of technical information is available. For example, our newest development guides will help to direct your development efforts today to prepare your applications for Monterey/64.
This page is the source of these goodies, by the way. Would you like to see the AIX 5L for POWER logo? Here you go.
Want some more evidence? OK. There is a graphic on page 3, that shows the unity they had in mind, and it reads like this:
Project Monterey Product Line
Develop - Single Source - Source Compatibility
[PJ: Lines from Single Source words point to each of the following]:
"Project Monterey’s common developer platform enables ISVs to utilize a single source tree and becomes stronger as a result of technology exchanges between AIX, UnixWare and DYNIX/ptx. Project Monterey provides an application development framework for ISVs, and supports a common development and deployment model."
Below that, you find on page 4 the logos for IBM and SCO and
Here's something else that blew me away. Back in 2000, there was a two-day conference, to teach developers about AIX 5L for Itanium, and what the sign-up page tells us is that one of the goals of Project Monterey was *Linux* compatibility, and it also mentions POWER. At the top of the page, you find Intel, SCO and IBM logos, and here's what developers were told about the Project Monterey Developer Events:
The introduction of AIX 5L signifies the success of the Project Monterey development initiative that includes IBM, Intel and SCO (Server Software Division - acquisition by Caldera Systems, Inc. pending). The primary goals of Project Monterey have been to enhance AIX with proven technologies and to deliver the industry's best enterprise-class UNIX® for Intel's new 64-bit microprocessor based systems (Itanium).
Linux compatibility and support for both Power and Itanium architectures make AIX 5L unique in the UNIX market. This new generation of AIX incorporates technologies from IBM's DYNIX/ptx, SCO's UnixWare, and Linux; making it the leading open enterprise UNIX for systems using both the new IBM Power4 and Intel Itanium microprocessors.
IBM is working to implement Linux API compatibility within AIX and to deliver a common set of application development tools and utilities across AIX and Linux. Together, these will serve to enhance the application portfolio available to AIX customers as well as provide customers with greater flexibility in how they choose to implement their e-business solutions.
Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) will have the added benefits of reducing development expense while addressing a wider spectrum of customer needs within the large market opportunities of Power and Itanium.
So, the three companies described their desire that there be "Linux API compatibility within AIX and to deliver a common set of application development tools and utilities across AIX and Linux." SCO's logo is on that page. Yoo Hoo, AutoZone!
Here's some more, from a Project Monterey brochure:
The AIX 5L operating system is commercially designed and supported, it targets both IBM POWER and the forthcoming Intel Itanium processors. AIX 5L -- which also possesses a strong Linux affinity -- enables ISVs to support a wide range of UNIX platforms with a single source tree and a common development environment. As a result, it provides a fast route to capitalizing on growth in the UNIX industry.
Remember SCO telling the court they were in the dark about IBM's Linux activities until IBM told them Project Monterey was dead in the water? Take a look at this paragraph from the Project Monterey brochure:
What is Project Monterey?
Project Monterey is a major UNIX operating system initiative formed by leading hardware and software partners IBM, SCO and Intel. Its mission has been the creation and continuing development of an open, flexible enterprise UNIX platform that expands business opportunities for ISVs and OEMs while facilitating greater commonality across UNIX products in the marketplace.
The development of AIX 5L has been the key focus of Project Monterey. With AIX 5L, developers now have a UNIX operating system that brings the enterprise strengths of IBM's UNIX operating system (AIX) to the Intel Itanium-based platform, complemented by technologies from SCO's UnixWare and IBM's DYNIX/ptx operating systems. In addition, AIX 5L's strong Linux affinity increases the operating system's flexibility and growth potential.
SCO might tell us they didn't know about POWER or Linux prior to Project Monterey dying, but what does the evidence show? Here's more, a press release demonstrating that other companies also knew about POWER:
Agreement Calls for VERITAS Software to Port VERITAS Volume Manager and VERITAS File System to AIX/Monterey and Offer Storage Management Products for AIX/Monterey Customers
MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. – May 16, 2000 – VERITAS* Software Corporation (Nasdaq: VRTS), the leading enterprise-class application storage management software provider, today announced a business agreement with IBM in support of AIX/Monterey*. As part of the agreement, VERITAS Software will be porting and optimizing its complete set of storage management solutions, including VERITAS Volume Manager and VERITAS File System, to AIX/Monterey for IBM POWER and Intel IA-64 processor-based systems.
"The availability of VERITAS Software solutions for AIX/Monterey will offer our customers choices in storage management to help them maintain the availability of critical data," said Ross Mauri, vice president, UNIX Software, Enterprise Systems Group, IBM Corporation. "The addition of these solutions will enhance the set of AIX/Monterey offerings as the industry's premier UNIX platform."
Notice the date? May of 2000. Oracle knew about it too, and so did SCO's CEO Doug Michels, as we see in this press release from 1999, for crying out loud:
"The integration of Oracle technology into AIX and Monterey/64 moves us toward solving several key challenges our customers face in becoming effective e-businesses," said Michael Rocha, senior vice president of Platform Technologies, Oracle Corporation. "Together, Oracle and IBM are providing a scalable, reliable solution across a broad spectrum of computing architectures that creates lasting stability, quality and reliability for our customers. This agreement helps make AIX and Monterey/64 a preferred Oracle platform for its strategic enterprise UNIX on IBM's POWER and Intel's IA-64 architectures."
"Oracle's support for Monterey/64 is a tremendous step forward in delivering the industry's leading enterprise UNIX platform for Itanium processor-based systems," said Doug Michels, SCO's CEO and president. "We are delighted to see Oracle expand its support to all Project Monterey UNIX systems as it enables ISVs to have direct access to the largest commercial UNIX systems marketplace for their applications."
Here are some paragraphs from a technical paper [PDF], "Understanding IBM RS/6000
Performance and Sizing," which says it was created or updated on June 30, 2000:
2.4 64-Bit Monterey
Project Monterey/64 UNIX is a version of UNIX based on IBM'™s AIX operating
system on IBM'™s power CPUs. Project Monterey is a joint effort between IBM,
Santa Cruz Operation, Intel Coproration, Compaq, and other companies.
Project Monterey is expected to provide greater commonality across UNIX
platforms in the marketplace.
Intel want to have a single solid UNIX on IA-64
IBM will license AIX technology to SCO for inclusion in UnixWare and
promote this offering to the IA-32 market.
The goal for Project Monterey is to establish a high-volume, enterprise-class
UNIX product line that runs across Intel IA-32 and IA-64 processors and
IBM's Power processors. Project Monterey has the backing of various large
corporations with the goal of having a common UNIX operating system
running on a common hardware CPU.
2.4.3 Porting Applications
Unixware applications are supported on Project Monterey by recompiling the
code. Minimal re-writes are expected. Similarly, AIX applications are fully
source-code-compatible with the new UNIX operating system on the IA-64
platform. The Project Monterey developer program will include porting guides
and a common set of APIs for IA-32, IA-64 and IBM Power processor
Here's a commentary from April of 2000, on Project Monterey:
So what is IBM's 64-bit Unix strategy, and how does it stack up against the competition? Project Monterey is designed to provide developers with one common set of programming and systems management interfaces across multiple environments, allowing them to deliver their applications across the range of systems most frequently used for Unix solutions—IA-32, IA-64 and RISC—with the smallest incremental investment. So, for example, developers could begin porting applications that run on 32-bit platforms to the new Intel 64-bit platform.
It is all part of IBM's continued push to take e-business to the next level. Project Monterey fits well with IBM's recent efforts to move the Linux software application environment (an open operating system) toward an industry standard; both moves seek to provide integration of business processes across disparate server platforms. . . .
A Linux Application Execution Environment is now under development for both AIX and Monterey/64 that will allow many Linux binaries to run on IBM Unix platforms. By providing this portability, IBM is making its platforms available to a broader set of customers whose needs might be better served by running Linux applications. This compatibility also means that fast growing companies can easily migrate to a more robust and powerful Unix environment.
But SCO had no idea. Really? Here's a 1999 IBM webpage, date provided by Wayback, in which it mentions POWER. Clearly it wasn't an afterthought:
Project Monterey is a major UNIX operating system initiative which includes such major industry participants as IBM, SCO and Intel. The initiative will create a volume platform that will expand business opportunities for ISVs and OEMs.
As part of this initiative, a UNIX operating system will be developed for Intel's IA-64 using IBM's AIX operating system's enterprise capabilities complemented with technology from SCO's UnixWare and IBM NUMA-Q's DYNIX/ptx operating systems. IBM will also transfer AIX technology to SCO's UnixWare and promote the offering in the UNIX on IA-32 market. The result will be a single UNIX operating system product line that runs on IA-32, IA-64 and Power microprocessors, in computers that range from entry-level to large enterprise servers.
Finally, here's an AIX 5L resources page from 2001, again with IBM, Intel and SCO logos on it, and it says this about AIX:
First (and only) UNIX operating system to be offered on both POWER and Itanium-based systems, offering customers the flexibility of freedom of choice.
So there you are. Now who's fooling whom? Well, not me, anyway.